Your car’s engine is the heart of its operation. Without an engine, you wouldn’t be able to drive around and enjoy your day. But with all the wear and tear that engines experience over time, it’s no surprise that they need frequent maintenance or might eventually break down altogether. This is why it’s important for you to learn about how car engines work so that you can better understand what needs to be done when repairs are needed.
The basic anatomy of an engine includes the cylinder block, cams, crankshaft, cylinder heads and pumps.
The block is the main housing of the engine where its other parts are attached.
The camshafts are located within the block’s cylinders and power valves that open and close as needed during operation.
The crankshaft is also located in the block and powers the pistons up and down during each rotation.
The cylinder heads contain the valves that send fuel to the pump, which sends it through a feed line to the combustion chamber.
The pumps in an engine are what sends the fuel from the tank to the cylinders and then back to the tank after being burned.
Cylinders, Pistons, Valves and Harmonic Balancers
The cylinder is the central part of a car’s engine that houses the pistons and allows for motion when it’s turned. A piston is attached to a connecting rod via a bearing and then turns the crankshaft with every revolution. Each cylinder has a specific purpose: The left side of the engine is for intake and the right side is for exhaust.
Intake valves open when fuel is needed for combustion and exhaust valves close once combustion has occurred. Pistons are connected to rods via bearings, which allow them to move freely in their bores. The top of each piston has a cylinder head that seals it into place while allowing air or gas to enter or exit as needed. When the engine is running, these valves control the flow of fuel and air entering and exiting the cylinder.
The cylinder head is the part of an engine that houses valves and other components. It’s also where cylinder blocks, heads and pumps are attached to. The camshafts are connected to each end of the crankshaft and control when each valve opens and closes.
The pistons are responsible for moving fuel inside the cylinders during operation. They’re connected to a connecting rod via bearing assemblies on both ends, which allows them to move back and forth in their bores.
Car engine harmonic balancers, also known as vibration dampers, are a device designed to reduce the amount of vibration and torsional stress on an engine. It is located between the crankshaft pulley and the engine block, and it is responsible for absorbing and neutralizing the harmonic vibrations that occur within the engine. These vibrations can cause damage to the engine over time, so the harmonic balancer is an essential component in maintaining the longevity and performance of the engine.
Harmonic balancers are typically made up of two main parts: a heavy outer ring that is connected to the crankshaft pulley, and a lightweight inner ring that is connected to the engine block. The outer ring is responsible for absorbing the harmonic vibrations, while the inner ring helps to neutralize them. The two rings are connected by a rubber or elastomeric material that acts as a buffer, and it is this material that wears out over time, causing the harmonic balancer to lose its effectiveness.
Carburettors, Fuel Injectors and Exhaust Systems
There are three main types of engine fuel systems: carburettors, fuel injectors and turbochargers.
Carburettors are used in older vehicles because they deliver fuel directly into the cylinder for combustion. This type of system doesn’t require any special tools to remove or install and can be repaired by a mechanic without much difficulty.
Fuel injectors are used in newer vehicles because they deliver fuel more efficiently than carburettors do. They’re also more responsive than carburettors and don’t require any extra parts for operation.
Turbochargers use exhaust gas to spin a turbine that then delivers pressurized air into the cylinder, which allows it to operate at higher RPMs. This type of system is commonly found on diesel engines.
An exhaust system is used to remove waste products from an engine’s cylinders, help cool them and keep them stable during operation. There are two main types of exhaust systems: single- and twin-exhaust. A single-exhaust system has only one pipe that goes out through the back of the car while a twin-exhaust system has two pipes that exit at different locations near the back end of the vehicle.